Simply renaming machine name hosting SharePoint is calling a disaster.
You are not suppose to simply change server name and everything in SharePoint will resume its functionality on its own.
However, changing server name is not that difficult either. One just have to follow right sequence of steps. So, here are the steps you must follow in the right order to change SharePoint 2010 server machine name:
- Rename the server at the operating system level by using the System Properties dialog box in Control Panel. Ignore any warnings you get and just change the name.
- Restart server
- Open SharePoint 2010 Management Shell and type following PowerShell command
Rename-SPServer [-Identity] <OriginalServerName> -Name <NewServerName>
- Do IISRESET
Now, please update any AAM (alternate access mappings) with relevance to the new server name.